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Blood relations

Blood Relations

A glance

Blood relations are logical problems which deal with hierarchical structure of the family. In these type of questions, we will be given the relation between two people in the most complicated way ever possible. We need to say, the choose from the options the way in which they are related. In most of the questions, it is easy to solve the problem after drawing the family tree.

Before going to the problems , we have to know why we are tested  and  How we are tested , and methods to clear the trap.

We are usually given with a set of statements which describes the relation between two or more people. For eg : Suppose assume Ram is the brother of Radha  ,this sentence will not be given as such , but it will be rephrased is Radha is the  daughter of mother of Ram. Since they both have common parents, they should be siblings.Ram is boy. so he should be the brother of radha.

Certain simple sentences as above can be easily found. But just think of big passages involving relations of more than 5 people. How will you find the relation between all of them? The simplest way to solve the problems correctly & quickly is to adopt the family tree concept.

What is a family tree? Whenever a relation is given, make a diagrammatic representation. This picture will lead you to the answers.

Diagrammatic approach to blood relations

How to draw a family tree ? The first basic thing is : when a person is said male , write his name in a rectangular box.

 When the person is female , write her name in a circle.In some questions , you may find the gender using their names. Like ram, Bhagat, Tom, Harry is males. Deepa, sandhya, Rani are females. In some other questions where the names are A , B , C , D or names common to both genders like suman, kamal, Just write the names without encircling or boxing it. Later on moving through the questions , if you find A is father of B then A can be boxed ( male ). C is wife of D. Then C can be circled and so.

The second thing is representing a parent – child. The parent is written in the top with the arrow head pointing to the child in the bottom.

The third thing is If A & B have one or both common parents , they are called siblings. Write the siblings with a double headed arrow connector as shown in the figure.

The next thing is representing a married couple. Suppose if A is married to B, we need to draw as A = B.

Now can you draw for the below given relation. “ A is the father of B, who is the wife of C. D is son of E, wife of A. “


How to call your relations??

Here is a list of relations. This may be quite helpful for you in determining certain indirect relationships. Go through the list once or twice to brush up the way of calling your relations.


Can you guess the relations?

Can you guess relations?

Have you got to know , what are blood relations. Here is  a simple test  for you.  The two persons in the picture are B and his friend. B says to his friend “ Mr A is the only son of my grandfather “. What is A to B? For these simple questions you may easily find the relation without drawing the tree.

Yes.. U’re right … A is B’s father.


Finding the Relation

Ex : 1 : 

Pointing to a boy in photograph, Vani says “ He is the son of my grandfather’s only child “. How is the boy related to Vani?


Let us see the first example : The question is : Pointing to a boy in photograph , Vani says “ He is the son of my grandfather’s only child “. How is the boy related to Vani ? You can solve this question in two ways:  The first way is drawing the tree. We have to find the relation of Vani & boy. First write vani and encircle her (female).Then it is given as my grandfather, so put a box and write grandfather inside and relate them.

Next look on something related to grandfather. Grandfather’s only child ( may be girl or boy ) so just write as child without encircling or boxing  it.

Now before proceeding look for the relation of Vani and her grandfather’s only child. Vani is the daughter of the child. Then look how is the boy related to the child ? The boy is the son of the child. Having common parent ( child ) Vani and the boy should be siblings. Vani is sister of the boy.

The other method of solving is : First rewrite the question. Then rephrase each part of the sentence by the relation. In other words comprehend them like my granfather ‘s only child is : My father or mother. 

He is the son of My ( father or Mother ) ( not specified )

He is my brother

The boy is Vani’s Brother


Moving on to example 2 :

Ex : 2

Thara is Mother – in – law of Roopa who is sister – in –law of Dinesh. Rakesh is father of Ranjith , the only brother of Dinesh. How is Thara related to Dinesh?


The question goes thus: Thara is Mother – in – law of Roopa who is sister – in –law of Dinesh. Rakesh is father of Ranjith, the only brother of Dinesh. How is Thara related to Dinesh ?  First given that thara is mother- in – law of roopa. So draw a circle and write thara inside. Put an arrow downwards to mark Thara ‘s son ( Though no detail is given about the son in the first line ) Then express Roopa and empty box as married couple. Now roopa becomes daughter- in – law of Thara. Lok at the next part of sentence. Given that Roopa is sister – in – law of Dinesh. So logically dinesh should be the other son of Thara. So put him below thara and box dinesh. Now look at the next sentence, Rakesh is the father of Ranjith , the only brother of Dinesh. So given that Ranjith is only brother of Dinesh that is Ranjith is the other son of Thara, Husband of Roopa. So write Ranjith in the box adjacent to Roopa. Also given that Rakesh is the father of Ranjith. Thus rakesh is husband of Thara. Now we have completed drawing the entire family tree. Now we are asked to relate Thara and Dinesh.

From the tree we find Thara is Dinesh’s mother.


Passage based Questions

The type 2 questions in blood relations are passage questions. These are the simplest and scoring part. But these questions needs more care.

In these type of questions, there is a passage and it is followed by a set of questions from the passage. So, once you understand the passage correctly and draw the family tree with care, you’re sure to get all the questions related to the passage correctly.

Let us have a look on passage 1.

Passage 1 : 

Monish is son of Dinesh’s father ‘s sister. Prasad is the son of Raji who is the mother of Vijay and grandmother of Dinesh. Praveen is the father of Neela and grandfather of Monish. Raji is Wife of Praveen.

Questions from the passage :

  1. How is Monish related to Raji?
  2.  How is wife of Vijay related to Neela?


It is given that : Monish is the son of Dinesh’s father’s sister. First draw a box and write Dinesh in it. Then put a box above writhing father above Dinesh  & ( link them ).

Draw a sibling to Dinesh’s father ( circle ) because it is his father’s sister. Now the latest drawn circle becomes aunt to Dinesh.So its better you link them both and write has aunt. Now Monish is the son of aunt. So monish and dinesh are cousins.

Now look on the second sentence. Given that prasad is son of raji, mother of vijay , grandmother of Dinesh. So dinesh ‘s father should be Vijay and Vijay ‘s mother should be Raji ( grandmother of Dinesh ). The additional thing from 2 nd line is :  Prasad is also the son of Raji.

Look at the 3 rd sentence. Praveen is father of Neela and grandfather of Monish. So Neela should be Monish ‘s mom ( Vijay’s sister , Dinesh’s Aunt ). Praveen is the grandfather implies Praveen is married to Raji. After drawing the family tree , you can answer the questions.

Step1: Just check if your tree also looks like this. If so,you’ve  drawn the family tree correctly.


Step 2: From the family tree, we can easily determine the relations.

Look at the first question

 1. How is Monish related to Raji?

From the tree, Monish is Raji’s grandson.

 The answer is Monish is Raji’s Grandson.

Look at the next question

2. How is wife of Vijay related to Neela?

Vijay is brother to neela. So wife of Vijay is sister- in-law.    

The answer is sister- in – law.

Step 3: Look at the option showing the correct answer and choose it.

Symbol based Family tree

Directions :   

P # Q – P is father of Q

P ¥ Q – P is sister of Q

P $ Q – P is brother of Q

P + Q – P is wife of Q  

Find the relation between P and Q in both the cases :

 a . P $ R + Q

 b.  P # R + Q


Step 1: Draw the family tree for each question:

a. P $ R + Q 


 b. P # R + Q